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Investigation of its structure at varying angular momentum, isospin and temperature provides new insight about the dynamics involved in the variety of emergent phenomena in this many-body system. With the advent of new accelerator facilities in India and worldwide, it is now possible to explore nuclear properties at limits of binding. This has thrown open a wide forum of novel nuclear physics problems in different length scales. Nuclear physics research is focused on exploring the science of atomic nuclei, its relevance in understanding processes like supernova and addressing open questions about fundamental symmetries of nature.

The goal of this program is to identify and understand the problems that need to be addressed in the area of nuclear structure and reaction with the present and upcoming accelerator facilities which will provide stable and radioactive ion beams.

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This is a completely different model from the usual Born-Oppenheimer picture of atoms and molecules we are used to, where nuclei oscillate about their equilibrium positions and electronic motion is decoupled from the nuclear one. Far for being conclusive, this work has the only aim to take this hypothesis more seriously, and focus the attention of people interested in LENR mechanism on this subject.

Box , Egypt. Nabil M. Box , Yusong, Daejeon , Republic of Korea. Abd Elaal Central Lab. Abstract Petroleum waste of scale, sludge and sand that maintained various level of naturally occurring radioactive materials could also contain heavy and toxic elements which cause hazardous pollution to human health and the environment so that determination of these elements in waste petroleum samples are important to refineries, industrial processes, waste disposal and transports.

All the studied samples had high concentrations of Fe, K, Ca, S and Si rather than the other elements. The concentration of Iron in Egyptian samples was higher than in Kuwait samples whilst silicon and potassium were greater in Kuwait samples.

All the other elements were almost same in Egyptian and Kuwait samples. Furthermore, the toxic element of barium was detected in Egyptian samples with high concentration but it was not detected in Kuwait samples XRF. The two measurement methods show good agreement, No significant differences.

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The obtained results imply that the petroleum wastes need more monitoring in order to minimize the environmental pollution. Part I. A Comprehensive Principle 1. The geometry of spacetime has to support objectivity. That is inescapable. All of natural science must share a common grounding in the reality of nature. Also the mathematics we have discovered and use to describe the reality of nature can only arise out of, and so can only refer to, the same natural reality. Natural science and mathematics have a common foundation, they spring from a common source.

Since this reference of the complex to the simple has been realized, the quest to understand and describe our universe has become a quest for an inferred principle that comprehends all of evolution and therefore can organize the apparent diversity of nature and affect the entire course of evolution.

Because of this the quest to understand nature has become the quest for the initial condition of the universe, that is, for the initial appearance of objective reality which we think of as spacetime. All the mysteries of the evolution of the universe are bound up with the unknown, foundational nature of spacetime.

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Abstract Based on the principle of conservation of energy and from the well known nuclear fusion and fission reactions it is possible to guess that, the E-CAT hidden energy may be in the form of binding of protons and neutrons of the Nickel, Hydrogen and Lithium atomic nuclei.

In view of the recently developed compact 1MW E-CAT power plant designed by the Leonardo corporation, Nickel can certainly be considered as the ultimate substitute of Coal, Oil and Uranium in near future. Abstract In the early publications, with reference to final unification, the authors suggested that.

Korets kiy. Therefore we decided to return to a previous study of plasma electrolysis on the Fakel-1 installations [7] and the Fakel-2 [8,9], where we already had indications on existence of nuclear radiation and excess heat in this cell mode. On the modernized installation Fakel-3 with plasma electrolysis the convincing evidence of nuclear processes was obtained. It was provided by Erzion catalysis [10] with the large excess heat.


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The received results have provided the positive decision on our International patent [11]. Here we present the investigation results of plasma electrolysis with anode gas discharge in usual water. Numerous demonstrations of their nuclear nature have been obtained in full accordance with Cold Nuclear Transmutation Erzion Catalysis model predictions [].

In Russia, the total amount of accumulated liquid radioactive waste hereinafter LRW is million, and 77 millions of solid radioactive waste. However, as the world and Russian practice shows, that the controlled storage of radioactive waste in the long term results their accumulation and is not acceptable as a strategy of RAW treatment.

Such strategy does not lead to the final safe solution of the problem, but requires the permanent overhead costs without clear prospect [1]. Thus, high production complexes for LRW treatment are needed. Key consumers interested in of liquid radioactive waste treatment plants are:.


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Nowadays, mainly thermal and sorption methods are used for treatment of liquid radioactive waste. Using these methods, the main part of liquid radioactive waste, produced during the operation of nuclear installations of various purposes and other facilities using radioactive substances, is treated. These methods cannot be called original or specific for the treatment of radioactive waste hereinafter RAW , because they were taken from various conventional industries and modified.

Mainly these are methods, usually used in purification, treatment and desalination of water.


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For implementing of treatment methods of non-nuclear industry and their modification, the specific requirements of industries related to radiation must be taken into account [2]:. The most universal method for treatment of almost all types of LRW is a thermal method, in which LRW solution is evaporated to concentrate radioactive products in a small volume. Practice of LRW treatment shows that the main source of problems in evaporation equipment are the heat exchange pipes.

During the operation, their surface is covering inevitably by sediments, which have to be removed periodically by chemical washing, with interruption of the treatment process and at the same time with producing a large amount of secondary LRW. The inevitability of foam-and-droplets entrainment from the evaporator is also caused by its design, so the additional special equipment have to be used for steam and condensate purification from radionuclides.

Moreover, it is necessary to perform periodically the mechanical cleaning of heat exchange tubes which leads to important radiation doses to personnel. All these problems existing in LRW evaporation technology are well known and studied, and some alternative methods are considered in [2], but it is concluded that these methods have a low productivity and heat transfer because of the lack of an organized circulation of evaporated solution [2]. The ideal comprehensive solution of the problem of LRW treatment is to create a continuous LRW evaporation technology with cementation of the concentrate at the same time, and the possible addition of used sorbents and sludge to the resulting cement compound.

The main factor limiting the use of evaporation technology is a high energy costs, but with the appearance at energy market such installations as E-Cat, this problem disappears. For comprehensive solution of the problems of LRW concentration and its subsequent cementation it is proposed to establish a technological process based on the two following principles:. To perform the process of LRW concentration in the evaporator equipment, that helps to prevent droplet entrainment and excludes degradation of technological parameters in time to exclude interruptions in work of evaporation equipment due to fouling of the heating surface.

Introduction to Nuclear Physics & Measurements (Centre d'étude nucléaire-Mol)

For example, certain nuclei are unstable, and their decay emits radiations with energies millions of times greater than atomic energies. Some of the mysteries of nature, such as why the core of the earth remains molten and how the sun produces its energy, are explained by nuclear phenomena. The exploration of radioactivity and the nucleus revealed fundamental and previously unknown particles, forces, and conservation laws. That exploration has evolved into a search for further underlying structures, such as quarks.

In this chapter, the fundamentals of nuclear radioactivity and the nucleus are explored.